No 49 - JWLD

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Open Access
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
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Open Access
JWLD Volume 49
Volume 49 (2021): Issue 2
1
Monitoring of horizontal displacements and changes of the riverine area of the Dniester River
Shevchuk V., Burshtynska K., Korolik I., Halochkin M.

Key words: channel processes, Dniester River, monitoring, riverbed displacements, riverine areas, satellite images, supervised classification, topographic maps  
For citation: Shevchuk V., Burshtynska K., Korolik I., Halochkin M. 2021. Monitoring of horizontal displacements and changes of the riverine area of the Dniester River. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 1–15. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137091.


Abstract
The article discusses the monitoring of horizontal displacements of the channel of Dniester, the second largest river in Ukraine, based on topographic maps, satellite images, as well as geological, soil and quaternary sediment maps. Data processing has been carried out using the geographic information system ArcGIS. The monitoring over a 140-year period (1874–2015) has been performed at the river’s transition from a mountainous to plain terrain on the 67 km section of the river. During this period, maximum displacements in the study area were 590–620 m. The research examines water protection zones needed for channel displacements. The article describes the monitoring methodology and analyses changes over a period of 18 years (2000–2018). The analysis includes the anthropogenic influence on the channel in the monitoring area. Results of the research may be useful for construction and cadastral works related to the channel in the area concerned, as well as for water management.
2
Waterlogging tolerance: A review on regulative morpho-physiological homeostasis of crop plants
Sharma S., Sharma J., Soni V., Kalaji H.M., Elsheery N.I.

Key words: antioxidants, cellular metabolites, climate change, photosynthesis, waterlogging  
For citation: Sharma S., Sharma J., Soni V., Kalaji H.M., Elsheery N.I. 2021. Waterlogging tolerance: A review on regulative morphophysiological homeostasis of crop plants. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 16–28. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137092.


Abstract
The natural environment is being drastically affected by climate change. Under these severe environmental conditions, the growth and productivity of agricultural crops have reduced. Due to unpredictable rainfall, crops growing in the field are often exposed to waterlogging. This leads to significant crop damage and production losses. In this review paper, the morphological and physiological adaptations such as development of aerenchyma, adventitious roots, radial root oxygen loss barrier, and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of crops under waterlogging are discussed. This will help to understand the effects of waterlogging on various crops and their adaptation that promotes crop growth and productivity. To meet the food requirements of a growing population, the development of waterlogging tolerant crops by screening and plant breeding methods is necessary for plant breeders. Better knowledge of physiological mechanisms in response to waterlogging will facilitate the development of techniques and methods to improve tolerance in crops.
3
Comparative assessment of Al2O3-modified biomasses from agricultural residues for nickel and cadmium removal
Herrera-Barros A., Tejada-Tovar C., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D.

Key words: adsorption, agricultural residues, alumina nanoparticles, cellulose, heavy metal ions
For citation: Herrera-Barros A., Tejada-Tovar C., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D. 2021. Comparative assessment of Al2O3-modified biomasses from agricultural residues for nickel and cadmium removal. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 29–34. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137093.


Abstract
The biodiversity of aqueous environments has been affected due to the disposal of wastewater highly contaminated with heavy metal ions, causing much damage to ecosystems. These pollutants are very toxic and bioaccumulate in living organisms. This work attempts to evaluate the adsorption of nickel ad cadmium ions using three biomasses from agricultural residues (corn cob – CC, orange peel – OP, and oil palm bagasse – PB) modified with alumina nanoparticles. The biomasses were characterized via compositional analysis and a point of zero charges to quantify the presence of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and the feasible pH, taking advantage of the biomass charge. After modification with Al2O3 nanoparticles. The resulting adsorbents were characterized via FT-IR analysis to identify the functional groups that most contributed to the adsorption performance. Furthermore, the influence of Al2O3 nanoparticles was analysed on the adsorption capacities of the evaluated biomasses using batch systems at a temperature of 25°C and pH 6. All biomasses displayed a high content of cellulose, estimating a weight percentage of about 19.9%, 14.3%, and 13.1% for PB, OP, and CC samples, respectively. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups, which contribute to enhancing the adsorption capacities of the modified biomasses. Functional adsorption capacity was observed for all biomasses after modification with Al2O3 nanoparticles, achieving at pH 6.0 a cadmium removal from 92% (CC-Al2O3 and PB-Al2O3) up to 95.8±0.3% (OP-Al2O3). In nickel ions, it was estimated a broader adsorption capacity at pH 6.0 of about 86±0.4% after using the CC-Al2O3 sample, 88±0.1% for the PB-Al2O3 adsorbent, and 98±0.2% for the OP-Al2O3 sample, confirming the suitability of these Al2O3-modified biomasses for the removal of heavy metal ions.
4
Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using the DRASTIC model: A case study of Quaternary catchment A21C, Limpopo River Basin, South Africa
Moges S.S., Dinka M.O.

Key words: A21C Quaternary catchment, DRASTIC model, groundwater vulnerability, sensitivity analysis, South Africa
For citation: Moges S.S., Dinka M.O. 2021. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using the DRASTIC model: A case study of Quaternary catchment A21C, Limpopo River Basin, South Africa. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 35–46. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137094.


Abstract
Groundwater is a vital resource for domestic, agricultural, industrial activities and ecosystem services. Despite its multiple purposes, the resource is under significant threat owing to increasing contamination from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Hence, in order to ensure the reliability and sustainable use of groundwater for the present and future generations, effective management of groundwater (quality and quantity) is highly important. This can be achieved by identifying areas more vulnerable to contamination and implementing protective measures. The present study aims at assessing the vulnerability of groundwater using GIS-based DRASTIC index in the Quaternary catchment (A21C) within Limpopo River Basin. The vulnerability index varied from 87 to 207. About 53.6% (408 km2) of the catchment area also exhibited high risk of groundwater contamination mostly in central, north-eastern and western part of the sub-catchment. The medium and low vulnerability classes cover only 18.1% (137.5 km2) and 21.7% (165.1 km2) of the study area, respectively. The shallow groundwater at the Doornfontein Campus belongs to very high vulnerability area. The sensitivity analysis indicates that depth to water level, recharge, aquifer media, soil and topography are the important contributors to vulnerability assessment. The correlation analysis performed to validate the final vulnerability map shows a moderate positive correlation, indicating the model’s applicability to the urbanised environment. The study indicates an area that is highly vulnerable to pollution, and hence protective measures are necessary for sustainable management of the groundwater resource in the study area. The result of this study can also be further improved and verified by using other vulnerability assessment models.
5
Soil erosion control in immature oil palm plantation
Satriawan H., Fuady Z., Fitri R.

Key words: cover crops, erosion, nutrient leaching, oil palm plantation, sediment trap, surface runoff, terraces
For citation: Satriawan H., Fuady Z., Fitri R. 2021. Soil erosion control in immature oil palm plantation. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 47–54. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137095.


Abstract
The objectives of developing oil palm plantations should feasible economically and without causing massive erosion. This research proposes soil and water conservation strategies that are ideal and optimal for oil palm cultivation depending on land capability class. The conservation test for plants was performed according to land capability classes on a plot measuring 22 m × 4 m. Runoff and erosion rates were measured using Multislot Divisor Method. Nutrient leaching was analysed based on the content of C-organic (Ctot) (Walkley–Black method), total nitrogen (Ntot) (Kjeldahl method), P-available (Bray-1
method) and K2O (extraction with 1N NH4OAc at pH 7.0). From the results, land capability class III, cover crops (soybean) + manure (P3) treatment effectively reduced runoff and soil erosion (22.63 m3∙ha–1∙y–1 and 13.04 Mg∙ha–1∙y–1), as well as nutrient leaching, compared to other treatments. Furthermore, sediment trap + cover crop + manure (P3) controlled runoff, erosion and nutrient leaching on land capability class IV, producing the lowest runoff (129.40 m3∙ha–1∙y–1), soil erosion (11.39 Mg∙ha–1∙y–1), C-organic (1.3%), and P (1.95 mg kg–1). Soil conservation treatment significantly reduced erosion and runoff (p < 0.05) on land capability class VI. The bench terrace + cover plants + manure treatment-controlled runoff, erosion, and soil nutrient leaching.
6
Effect of magnetic fields and fertilizers on grass and onion growth on technogenic soils
Vasilyeva M., Kovshov S., Zambrano J., Zhemchuzhnikov M.

Key words: alternating magnetic field, biochar, bioefficiency, biohumus, constant magnetic field, fertilization, physiological parameters of plants, technogenic soil
For citation: Vasilyeva M., Kovshov S., Zambrano J., Zhemchuzhnikov M. 2021. Effect of magnetic fields and fertilizers on grass and onion growth on technogenic soils. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 55–62. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137096.


Abstract
The article deals with effect the use of organic (biohumus) and mineral (biochar) fertilizers based on the products of chicken vital activity on changing the fertility of technogenic sod-podzolic soils exposed to constant and unstable magnetic fields. The germination and growth dynamics of grasses and onions were investigated. The rational rate of introduction of the studied fertilizers into the technogenic soil is determined. Running (RMF) and direct (DMF) magnetic fields were applied in two ways: with fertilizers added and without fertilizers added. It has been established that the effect of preliminary magnetization of technogenic soil has a significant effect on lawn grass germination and the length of onion feathers, which are more than twice the height when exposed to the RMF, as compared with DMF. The effect of RMF on grass germination was also twice as high for DMF, when fertilizers were added. The DMF magnetization and biohumus helps to increase the grass sprout height by 10–20%. Onion sprouts were higher in two cases: DMF and biohumus; RMF and biochar. The influence of the factor of fertilizer type has a significant effect in 30–40% of cases, whilst at a spread rate of more than 5%, significant chemical activity of biochar negatively affects the germination of both grass and onion.
7
An experimental sedimentation tank for enhancing the settling of solid particles
Yaseen D.A., Abu-Alhail S., Mohammed R.N.

Key words: baffle, clay, secondary settling basin, solid particles, treatment plant, turbid water
For citation: Yaseen D.A., Abu-Alhail S., Mohammed R.N. 2021. An experimental sedimentation tank for enhancing the settling of solid particles. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 63–73. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137097.


Abstract
Sedimentation tanks have a vital role in the overall efficiency of solid particles removal in treatment units. Therefore, an in-depth study these tanks is necessary to ensure high quality of water and increasing the system efficiency. In this work, an experimental rectangular sedimentation tank has been operated with and without a baffle to investigate the system behaviour and effectiveness for the reduction of solid particles. Turbid water was prepared using clay, which was collected from the water treatment plant of Al Maqal Port (Iraq), mixed with clear water in a plastic supply tank. Raw and outflow samples were tested against turbidity after plotting a calibration curve between inflow suspended solids versus their corresponding turbidity values. The key objective was to assess the impact of different flow rates, particle concentrations, heights and positions of the baffle on the system efficiency. Findings showed that the tank performance was enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) with the use of a baffle placed at a distance of 0.15 of tank length with height equal to 0.2 of tank depth. Higher removal efficiency (91%) was recorded at a lower flow rate (0.015 dm3∙s–1) and higher concentration (1250 mg∙dm–3), as the treatment efficiency enhanced by 34% compared with the operation without a baffle. Placing the baffle in the middle of the sedimentation tank produced the worst results. System efficiency for solids removal reduced with increasing baffle height. Further research is required to evaluate the efficiency of an inclined baffle.
8
Prospects for the use of microwave energy in grain crop seeding
Kipriyanov F.A., Savinykh P.A., Isupov A.Yu., Plotnikova Y.A., Medvedeva N.A., Belozerova S.V.

Key words: disinfection, microwave drying, microwave energy, microwave use on plants, pre-sowing treatment
For citation: Kipriyanov F.A., Savinykh P.A., Isupov A.Yu., Plotnikova Y.A., Medvedeva N.A., Belozerova S.V. 2021. Prospects for
the use of microwave energy in grain crop seeding. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 74–78. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137098.


Abstract
This study looks at determining the main trends in the application of microwaves on plants in agricultural production in the processing of grain material, it provides examples of their effectiveness and an overview of the use of microwaves on plants available on the Russian market. Additionally, the research studied the experience and developments of leading scientists in the field of microwave radiation. Analysis of the available sources provided information on the positive effect of microwave radiation in the processing of crops. The use of microwaves on plants during drying destroys pathogens and bacteria, in particular, microwave processing of red lentils reduces grey mould damage by up to 30%. Positive results are also noted in the microwave processing of other crops, providing an increase in germination capacity of up to 7% and yield growth of up to 6%. The microwave plant market in Russia is represented mainly by dryers, and the use of microwaves on plants combining several functions of drying, disinfection, and pre-sowing stimulation.
9
The minimization of impact of oil pollution on soils in the area of railways using glauconite
Chayka O., Petrushka I., Ruda M., Paranyak N., Matskiv O.

Key words: ecological safety, glauconite, oil products, pollution, railway transport, soil contamination
For citation: Chayka O., Petrushka I., Ruda M., Paranyak N., Matskiv O. 2021. The minimization of impact of oil pollution on soils in the area of railways using glauconite. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 79–84. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137099.


Abstract
The analysis of ecological hazards on soil pollution by oil products has been provided in the impact zone of the railway. The results of oil product migration in soils in the area of influence on section Lviv–Khodoriv are given. To study this problem, a method was used to take soil samples according to the standard DSTU ISO 10381-4: 2005. To determine the content of petroleum products used the method MVV No. 081/12-0116-03 Pochvy. Based on the results of the study it was found that contamination with petroleum products in the study area exceeds the norm in the area of influence of the railway at a distance of 5 to –50 m on average 3.5 times. It is proposed to make management decisions to prevent violations of the sanitary protection zone of the railway and the placement of agricultural plots on it. For rehabilitation of contaminated soils, it is advisable to use a natural sorbent – glauconite, which is widespread in the bowels of Ukraine. The adsorption capacity of glauconite relative to diesel fuel has been experimentally established. According to our experiments it is proved the high efficiency of the proposed sorbent, which is 90%. Therefore, in the future it is necessary to periodically monitor the condition of the soil in the area to prevent pollution. This study proves that this practice is necessary.
10
A novel method and device for plastic mulch retriever
Khazimov K.M., Niyazbayev A.K., Shekerbekova Zh.S., Urymbayeva A.A., Mukanova G.A., Bazarbayeva T.A.

Key words: compaction, microclimatic conditions, mulch retriever, plastic mulch, polymer degradation
For citation: Khazimov K.M., Niyazbayev A.K., Shekerbekova Zh.S., Urymbayeva A.A., Mukanova G.A., Bazarbayeva T.A., Nekrashevich V.F., Khazimov M.Zh. 2021. A novel method and device for plastic mulch retriever. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 85–94. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137100.


Abstract
Plastic mulch provides a range of benefits including helping modulate soil temperature, reduce soil erosion, evaporation, fertilizer leaching and weed problems and increasing the quality and yields of the product. But when the crops are harvested, plastic mulch needs to be removed from the ground for disposal. Otherwise, these wastes are mixed with the soil and have a negative impact on yields by reducing the access of nutrients and moisture in the soil. The purpose of the current study is, therefore, to propose a roller for plastic mulch retriever which is applicable when the crops are harvested, and the plastic
mulch needs to be removed from the ground for disposal. The winding mechanism of the plastic mulch retriever performs the main function and must have the high-quality performance of the winding operation in the removal technology. Research based on requirements of tensile strength test method and changes of strength characteristics of plastic mulch from various of the standard plastic mulch which was wound in the factory to the diameter of the used plastic mulch during the winding.
11
Use of fly larvae Hermetia illucens in poultry feeding: A review paper
Sverguzova S.V., Shaikhiev I.H., Sapronova Zh.A., Fomina E.V., Makridinа Yu.L.

Key words: feed, Hermetia illucens, insect feed, poultry, protein flour
For citation: Sverguzova S.V., Shaikhiev I.H., Sapronova Zh.A., Fomina E.V., Makridinа Yu.L. 2021. Use of fly larvae Hermetia illucens in poultry feeding: A review paper. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 95–103. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137101.


Abstract
The paper presents the review of scientific publications of world literature on the use of the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) when feeding poultry. Nowadays, the issue of replacing traditional sources of protein when feeding poultry is very urgent, especially in connection with the global food crisis. Insects are the natural food of most birds; thus, the use of fly larvae for feed production has a biological basis. The research results presented in published works show that there are no negative effects on bird health and meat quality when feeding poultry, quail and other birds. In some cases, the
experimental groups of birds gained weight slightly more slowly than the control group. Other reports indicate that birds grew at the same rate as normal birds. The quantity and quality of eggs did not differ significantly, but dietary changes affected the colour of yolks and eggshell. The effect of the addition of live larvae to the diet of young turkeys on the weight characteristics of was studied. Replacing 10% of the daily amount of feed with live Hermetia illucens larvae in the diet of turkeys showed that the daily feed intake and body weight gain of the experimental birds were significantly higher compared
to the control groups, which led to a significantly higher body weight of chicks at the age of five weeks (2.19 kg vs. 2.015 kg, respectively) and a significantly lower feed conversion rate. Most researchers agree that replacing protein in poultry feed with insect flour should be partial, in the 15–30% range. Feeding with larvae that have undergone processing – grinding, chitin removing, heat treatment – is more preferable than using whole larvae, since the chitinous membrane makes larvae difficult to be digested in the digestive tract of birds.
12
Features of the surface water oxygen regime in the Ukrainian Polesie Region
Aristarkhova E.O., Fedoniuk T.P., Romanchuk L.D., Latushynskyi S.V., Kot I.V.

Key words: orrelation analysis, dissolved oxygen, fish, oxygen regime, рН, seasonal fluctuations, surface water, temperature, toxicity
For citation: oxygen regime in the Ukrainian Polesie Region. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 104–110. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137102.


Abstract
The research analyzed seasonal changes of the oxygen regime and related indicators on the example of water objects of the Ukrainian Polesie Region. The region shows different directions of economic use. Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton–Buchanan) and the Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) were used as test objects to investigate survival responses. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in water, pH values and temperatures were determined by standard methods. Based on research results, the main problems were determined pertaining to the oxygen regime of investigated waters, i.e. the increase in temperature and toxicity of the aquatic environment in the summer. A rather dangerous decrease in DO concentration, almost up to the levels of maximum allowable concentration (MAC) (4.10 mg∙dm–3 in group E1 and 6.07 mg∙dm–3 in group E2), was observed in August and it was typical for the reservoirs with a slow water movement. Flowing river waters (group E3) were eliminated due to their better aeration compared to other groups. The correlation analysis based on the presented data revealed a high and average degree of probable correlation between the DO concentration and water temperature, as well as an average degree of correlation with general toxicity determined on sensitive species of D. rerio, and in group E1 on the persistent species C. auratus gibelio as well. The interrelations and equations of the rectilinear regression can be used to predict the oxygen regime of the waters investigated and other surface waters having similar problems.
13
Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality using water quality index The Saguling Reservoir, Indonesia
Marselina M., Sabar A., Fahimah N.

Key words: inverse distance weight, spatial and temporal assessment, surface water, water quality index
For citation: Marselina M., Sabar A., Fahimah N. 2021. Spatial and temporal assessment of surface water quality using water quality index. The Saguling Reservoir, Indonesia. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 111–120. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137103.


Abstract
Developments in agriculture, industry, and urban life have caused the deterioration of water resources, such as rivers and reservoirs in terms of their quality and quantity. This includes the Saguling Reservoir located in the Citarum Basin, Indonesia. A review of previous studies reveals that the water quality index (WQI) is efficient for the identification of pollution sources, as well as for the understanding of temporal and spatial variations in reservoir water quality. The NSFWQI (The National Sanitation Foundation water quality index) is one of WQI calculation methods. The NSFWQI is commonly used as an indicator of surface water quality. It is based on nitrate, phosphate, turbidity, temperature, faecal coliform, pH, DO, TDS, and BOD. The average NSFWQI has been 48.42 during a dry year, 43.97 during a normal year, and 45.82 during a wet year. The WQI helped to classify water quality in the Saguling Reservoir as “bad”. This study reveals that the strongest and most significant correlation between the parameter concentration and the WQI is the turbidity concentration, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.821 in a dry year, and faecal coli, for which the coefficient correlation is 0.729 in a dry year. Both parameters can be used to calculate the WQI. The research also included a nitrate concentration distribution analysis around the Saguling Reservoir using the Inverse Distance Weighted method.
14
Impact of raw and purified wastewater reuse from the Dar El-Gueddari treatment plant on the soil
Njimat S., Elfettahi F., Griou H., El Brouzi M.Y., Aboulouafa M., Ibn Ahmed S.

Key words: dilutions, electrical conductivity, infiltration, organic matter, pH, treatment plant, wastewater irrigation
For citation: Njimat S., Elfettahi F., Griou H., El Brouzi M.Y., Aboulouafa M., Ibn Ahmed S. 2021. Impact of raw and purified wastewater reuse from the Dar El-Gueddari treatment plant on the soil. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 121–128. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137104.


Abstract
The study has been carried out at two experimental sites. It aims to assess the impact of the reuse of raw wastewater, purified and diluted with conventional water on the physicochemical quality of soils compared to irrigated soils with conventional drilled water and non-irrigated soil. The obtained results show that the electrical conductivity EC and sodium gradually increase in all the plots irrigated with wastewater. Additionally, a slight increase in the pH levels at the first site and a slight decrease in the second site was seen, but at both sites the soils remained alkaline. The infiltration rate of water slide decreases in relation to the amount of irrigation, especially in plots irrigated by raw and treated wastewater. For the same plots, the values of organic matter increased, and the values obtained for the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) became high in the third year and reached 17.0% and 16.7% respectively.
15
Field and modelling study for deficit irrigation strategy on roots volume and water productivity of wheat
Abdelraouf R.E., El-Shawadfy M.A., Dewedar O.M., Hozayn M.

Key words: irrigation, roots volume, SALTMED model, soil moisture, water productivity, wheat
For citation: Abdelraouf R.E., El-Shawadfy M.A., Dewedar O.M., Hozayn M. 2021. Field and modelling study for deficit irrigation strategy on roots volume and water productivity of wheat. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 129–138. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137105.


Abstract
In many regions of the world, including Egypt, water shortages threaten food production. An irrigation deficient strategy in dry areas has been widely investigated as a valuable and sustainable approach to production. In this study, the dry matter and grain yield of wheat was decreased by reducing the amount of irrigation water as well as the volume of the root system. As a result of this, there was an increase the soil moisture stress. This negatively affected the absorption of water and nutrients in the root zone of wheat plants, which ultimately had an effect on the dry matter and grain yield of wheat. The values of dry matter and grain yield of wheat increased with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class. It is possible that this was due to the increase in the genetic characteristic of the root size with the ʻSakha 94ʼ variety compared to the ʻSakha 93ʼ class, as this increase led to the absorption of water and nutrients from a larger volume of root spread. Despite being able to increase the water productivity of wheat by decreasing the amount of added irrigation water, the two highest grain yield values were achieved when adding 100% and 80% of irrigation requirements (IR) needed to irrigate the wheat and no significant differences between the yield values at 100% and 80% of IR were found. Therefore, in accordance with this study, the recommended irrigation for wheat is at 80% IR which will provide  20% IR. When comparing the water productivity of two wheat varieties in study, it becomes clear that ʻSakha 94ʼ was superior to ʻSakha 93ʼ when adding the same amount of irrigation water, and this resulted in increased wheat productivity for ʻSakha 94ʼ. The SALTMED results confirmed good accuracy  (R2: 0.92 to 0.98) in simulating soil moisture, roots volume, water application efficiency, dry matter, and grain yield for two varieties of wheat under deficit irrigation conditions. Whilst using sprinkler irrigation system under sandy soils in Egypt.
16
Response of potato biomass and tuber yield under future climate change scenarios in Egypt
Dewedar O., Plauborg F., El-Shafie A., Marwa A.

Key words: AquaCrop model, biomass, climate change, CMIP5 scenarios, potato, yield
For citation: Dewedar O., Plauborg F., El-Shafie A., Marwa A. 2021. Response of potato biomass and tuber yield under future climate change scenarios in Egypt. Journal of Water and Land Development No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 139–150. DOI 10.24425/jwld. 2021.137106.


Abstract
FAO AquaCrop model ver. 6.1 was calibrated and validated by means of an independent data sets during the harvesting seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, at El Noubaria site in western north of Egypt. To assess the impact of the increase in temperature and CO2 concentration on potato biomass and tuber yield simulations, experiments were carried out with four downscaled and bias-corrected of General Circulation Models (GCMs) data sets based on the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) scenarios under demonstrative Concentration Trails (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, selected for 2021–2040 and 2041–2060. The study showed that the model could satisfactorily simulate potato canopy cover, biomass, harvest and soil water content under various irrigation treatments. The biomass and yield decreased for all GCMs in both future series 2030s and 2050s. Biomass reduction varied between 5.60 and 9.95%, while the reduction of the simulated yield varied between 3.53 and 7.96% for 2030. The lowest values of biomass and yield were achieved by HadGEM2-ES under RCP 8.5 with 27.213 and 20.409 Mg∙ha–1, respectively corresponding to –9.95 and –7.96% reduction. The lowest reductions were 5.60 and 3.53% for biomass and yield, respectively, obtained with MIROC5 under RCP 8.5 for 2030. Reductions in biomass and yield in 2050 were higher than in 2030. The results are showing that higher temperatures shortened the growing period based on calculated growing degree days (GDD). Therefore, it is very important to study changing sowing dates to alleviate the impact of climate change by using field trials, simulation and deep learning models.
17
Phosphoric regime of light chestnut soil and sugar beet yield with long-term use of phosphorous fertilizers
Alimbekova B., Yeleshev R., Bakenova Zh., Shibikeyeva A., Balkozha M.

Key words: ammonia nitrogen, chestnut soil, fertilization, gross phosphorus, mineral nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, mobile phosphorus, organic phosphorus, permanent sugar beet crop
For citation: Alimbekova B., Yeleshev R., Bakenova Zh., Shibikeyeva A., Balkozha M. 2021. Phosphoric regime of light chestnut soil and sugar beet yield with long-term use of phosphorous fertilizers. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 151–155. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137107.


Abstract
This study presents the results of research on the effect of long-term use of phosphorus fertilizers on permanent sugar beet crops for more than 50 years and on the transformation of phosphate forms on light chestnut soil and its yield. Our work aims to establish the main factors of quantitative and qualitative changes in various phosphates in light chestnut soil. Despite the large amount of practical material, the influence duration of phosphorus fertilizer application has not been sufficiently studied on the irrigated soils of Kazakhstan. It should be noted that the current study was carried out in long-term stationary experimental sites for the production of sugar beet with permanent sowing. The introduction of phosphate fertilizers primarily on the permanent crops of sugar beets in the same norms contributes to a more significant increase in gross phosphorus reserves. The soil content of gross phosphorus for 58 years on the control and nitrogen-potassium variants show practically no changes. Furthermore, when phosphorus fertilizers are applied on the variant with the annual application of a single norm of phosphorus and its amount for 58 years (4400 kg∙ha–1 of application doses) its content increased by 2660 mg∙kg–1, and with the introduction of its one and a half norms (6600 kg of application doses) by 2860 mg∙kg–1 of soil.
18
Development of biogas and biorafinery systems in Polish rural communities
Wałowski G.

Key words: agricultural biogas, biorafination, fermentation process, pig slurry
For citation: Wałowski G. 2021. Development of biogas and biorafinery systems in Polish rural communities. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 156–168. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137108.


Abstract
The article reviews selected systems and technological variants of biogas production. Biogas installations and methods of biogas production were characterized in terms of control and measurement. The required technical and technological criteria for biogas production and treatment were indicated. The conditions of biorefining in the context of the generation of new products were analysed. Based on the amount of manure produced in pig production, the potential of biogas production in Poland was indicated based on the visualization of the biogas production potential by poviats in Poland. The substrate in the form of slurry, manure and other agricultural waste for the production of agricultural biogas in Poland was analysed quantitatively. The economic aspects in the agricultural biogas plant sector were revealed, indicating the operation of the economies of scale for this industry sector. An example of a pilot biogas production for anaerobic digestion using pig slurry is presented. The paper presents preliminary results of experimental studies on the course of changes in the biogas volume flow for the average daily production of agricultural biogas and the qualitative composition of agricultural biogas produced from pig slurry. The results of the measurements show a clear influence of the hydrodynamic mixing system of the substrate for the evaluation of the biogas flow through the adhesive bed in the context of agricultural biogas production in the range (1–14) m3 d–1.
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Grape production assessment using surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods
Kadbhane S.J., Manekar V.L.

Key words: crop water requirement, irrigation with plastic bottles, organic mulch, plastic mulch, stone column, sustainable irrigation, water productivity
For citation: Kadbhane S.J., Manekar V.L. 2021. Grape production assessment using surface and subsurface drip irrigation methods. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 49 (IV–VI) p. 169–178. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.137109.


Abstract
The study involved experimental work implemented from April 2014 until March 2017. Its purpose was to observe grape production quality parameters, such as yield, water productivity, berry size and bio-mass. Different irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation (DI), drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DIPM), drip irrigation with organic mulching (DIOM), subsurface irrigation with stone column (SISC), subsurface irrigation with mud pot (SIMP), and subsurface irrigation with plastic bottles (SIPB) have been used during the experimental work. The crop has been irrigated following the CROPWAT-8.0 model developed by the FAO. Climate parameters are obtained from the automatic weather station located near the experimental field. Based on experimental results and analyses, it has been observed that the drip irrigation with the plastic mulching method is the best for irrigation in terms of the grape yield comparing with all other methods due to its highest productivity of 35–40%. Subsurface irrigation with the plastic bottle method is found to be suitable as it gives 20% higher yield than the traditional drip irrigation method. The SIPB method shows the cost-benefit ratio of 112.3, whereas the DIPM method had the ratio of 36.6. Based on the cost-benefit analysis, it is concluded that the SIPB method is economically more viable as compared with all other methods. Hence, based on the findings, it is recommended to use drip irrigation with a plastic mulching and drip irrigation with a plastic bottle as the best options to achieve grape productivity while using minimum water.
Dział Wydawnictw ITP/Editorial Office
Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy
Falenty, al. Hrabska 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Polska
tel. +48 22 243 54 54, fax +48 22 735 75 06
http://www.itp.edu.pl/wydawnictwo
e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl;
e-mail: wydawnictwo@itp.edu.pl
Dział Wydawnictw ITP/Editorial Office
Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy
Falenty, al. Hrabska 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Polska
tel. +48 22 243 54 54
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