No 48 - JWLD

Open Access
Open Access
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
Journal of Water and Land Development
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Open Access
Volume 48 (2021): Issue 1
1
EUSS – computer model to evaluate emission uniformity for sloping surfaces under drip irrigation system
Abo Zied W., Hanafy M., Mostafa E., Abo Habssa A.

Key words: computer model, drip irrigation system, emission uniformity, EUSS model, slope  
For citation: Abo Zied W., Hanafy M., Mostafa E., Abo Habssa A. 2021. EUSS – computer model to evaluate emission uniformity on sloping surfaces for drip irrigation system. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 1–10. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2020.135314.


Abstract
A computer model EUSS (Emission Uniformity on Sloping Surfaces) has been developed to design and evaluate the  system capacity under operating conditions for drip irrigation system. And achieve the desired value of emission uniformity  that is not significantly different according to the recommended values by applying it in field experiment located at Al-Slahia city, Egypt. The model has the ability to design the system by all of the common design techniques and have ability  to customize any of them. EUSS model includes two main parts: crop water requirements, and hydraulic calculations of the system using metric  unit system. It developed in graphical user interface of the programming language C-sharp (C#) by using Microsoft Visual  Studio. The model database is containing the equations, tables and reference values to get more rapid and accurate results,  and gives the opportunity for selecting some parameters such as: soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop,  and climatic data. EUSS model allows the user to assume or set definite values, for example plot layout, land slopes and  topography, the emitter characteristics and operating conditions.
2
Arsenic removal through bio sand filter using different bio-adsorbents
Keerio G.S., Keerio H.A., Ibuphoto K.A., Laghari M., Panhwar S., Talpur M.A.

Key words: arsenic, banana peel, bio-adsorbent, bio-sand filter, biochar, rice-husk, water treatment  
For citation: Keerio G.S., Keerio H.A., Ibuphoto K.A., Laghari M., Panhwar S., Talpur M.A. 2021. Arsenic removal through bio sand filter using different bio-adsorbents. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 11–15. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136141.


Abstract
Arsenic is one of the most harmful pollutants in groundwater. In this paper, the Nepali bio sand filter (BSF) was modified with different bio-adsorbents, and proved to be an efficient method for arsenic removal from groundwater. Three different bio-adsorbents were used to modify the Nepali BSF. Iron nails and biochar BSF, ~96% and ~93% arsenic removal was achieved, within the range of WHO guidelines. In iron nails, BSF and biochar BSF ~15 dm3 ∙h–1 arsenic content water was treated. In the other two BSFs, rice-husk and banana peel were used, the arsenic removal efficiency was ~83% of both BSFs. Furthermore, the efficiency of rice-husk and banana peel BSFs can be increased by increasing the surface area of the adsorbent or by reducing the flow rate.
3
Impact of Kishnica mines on pollution of the Graçanka River and water wells nearby, Kosovo
Kadriu S., Sadiku M., Kelmendi M., Aliu M., Mulliqi I., Hyseni A.

Key words: mines, pollution, the Graçanka River, water quality, water wells
For citation: Kadriu S., Sadiku M., Kelmendi M., Aliu M., Mulliqi I., Hyseni A. 2021. Impact of Kishnica mines on pollution of the Graçanka River and water wells nearby, Kosovo. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 16–21. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136142.


Abstract
Mining is an important economic activity in Kosovo. Artana and Kishnica mines are a part of the Trepça industrial complex and the increased exploitation of deposits has resulted in undesirable impact on the environment around the mining sites. More specifically, the mining activity caused water pollution. The aim of the study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and presence of heavy metals (Ni, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe) in water samples of the Graçanka River and household wells in the area. The Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to determine metal concentrations. Samples were collected from five sites along the Graçanka River and from four private water wells during a period from September to November 2019. Concentrations of heavy metals in the Graçanka River were as follows Mn (24–1203 µg∙dm–3 ), Fe (11–785 µg∙dm–3 ), Ni (4–299 µg∙dm–3 ), Pb (2–22 µg∙dm–3 ), As (1–5 µg∙dm–3 ), Zn (344–1646 µg∙dm–3 ), Cr (1–2 µg∙dm–3 ) and Cd (<1 µg∙dm–3 ). The well waters were polluted by multiple metals (Mn > Fe > Ni > Pb) with concentrations of Mn 1834–36089 µg∙dm–3 , Fe 158–3535 µg∙dm–3 , Ni 82–1882 µg∙dm–3 , Pb 5–45 µg∙dm–3 , As 2–19 µg∙dm–3 , Cd 1–12 µg∙dm–3 , Zn 979–23474 µg∙dm–3 and Cr 1–2 µg∙dm–3 . The pollution has been caused by industrial (mining-related) and urban discharges. The contamination originates from the release of flotation process waste and from the leaching of the tailings dam. Most probably, rainwater has washed contaminants into the aquifers and the Graçanka River. River water is not suitable for irrigation and well water is not suitable for consumption or irrigation. Wastewater should be treated before discharge and the tailings area should be remediated in order to stop the pollution.
4
Numerical analysis of stream renovation using MIKE 11-GIS and HEC-RAS5
Nazari Giglou A.

Key words: ecological recovery, field site screening, hydrodynamics modelling, pre-post renovation, stream renovation
For citation: Nazari Giglou A. 2021. Numerical analysis of stream renovation using MIKE 11-GIS and HEC-RAS5. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 22–31. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136143.

Abstract
The main purpose of river system is to renovate its old processes. This article represents the results of two numerical  models and a field site screening results for the river renovation in Idaho, U.S.A and some restoration methodologies that  have been used to better understand possible renovating strategy. Ecological recovery methods using a degraded stream  ecosystem have been found after estimating a channel design's capability. Despite these representing methods it is hard to  present the most effective method to get efficient renovative outcomes. Two hydrodynamics modelling (MIKE 11-GIS and  HEC-RAS5) and field site screening are used to evaluate pre- and post-renovation modifies in 35 laboratory experiments  and biological performance indicators. Movement formed between 1994 and 2014 have been considered in this research.  Ecosystem improvements have been evaluated to compare the pre-post renovation situations by considering the parameters  such as water surface elevation, lower slope, shear stress, depth, wet perimeter, and velocities. The numerical model results  for all mentioned parameters show that after the completion of phase I, II, III and IV, the sinuosity of the channel will be  very close to the 1986 condition. The sediment carrying capacity and potential use of MIKE 11-GIS, hydrodynamic model  for scour has been reduced throughout the lower reaches of the project site, where the channel slope is at its steepest position, and a close match with the field site screening and have been shown and presented as graphs.
5
Distribution and ecological growth conditions of Utricularia australis R. Br. in Ukraine
Orlov O.O., Fedoniuk T.P., Iakushenko D.M., Danylyk I.M., Kish R.Ya., Zimaroieva A,A., Khant G.A.

Key words: environmental parameters, phytocenosis, tolerance, Utricularia australis, water quality
For citation: Orlov O.O., Fedoniuk T.P., Iakushenko D.M., Danylyk I.M., Kish R.Ya., Zimaroieva A,A., Khant G.A. 2021. Distribution and ecological growth conditions of Utricularia australis R. Br. in Ukraine. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 32–47. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136144.

Abstract
The study shows the biodiversity of Utricularia australis from western to northern regions of Ukraine. The environmental conditions of Ukraine are favourable for the spread and formation of phytocenosis involving U. australis, especially on thermoclimatic, cryothermal and continental scale. A broader range of the species’ relation to humidity has been recorded. The research outcome shows the existence of the species in conditions from shallow, parched reservoirs to deep water  habitats which allows the species to withstand temporary drying of reservoirs in summer periods. The resilience of U. australis to some water quality parameters, including nitrogen, phosphorus, iron content, colour, pH and organic contamination  was higher than in previous studies and Tsyganov’s ecological scales. Thus, due to its wide range of tolerance to the majority of environmental factors, U. australis tends to spread in contemporary climatic conditions in Ukraine. Considering that  the species has category “vulnerable” in the country and is listed in the red data book of Ukraine, its conservation status is  likely to be revised further.
6
The variability of natural and climatic conditions in investment projects in the field of nature management
Rokochinskiy A., Frolenkova N., Turcheniuk V., Volk P., Prykhodko N., Tykhenko R., Openko I.

Key words: agricultural production, environmental management, forecasting and optimization models, investment projects, natural and climatic conditions, water management and land reclamation systems
For citation: Rokochinskiy A., Frolenkova N., Turcheniuk V., Volk P., Prykhodko N., Tykhenko R., Openko I. 2021. The variability of natural and climatic conditions in investment projects in the field of nature management. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 48–54. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136145.

Abstract
The article focuses on the actual scientific and practical problem of accounting for the influence of meteorological and  climatic factors in the technical and economic calculations in the field of environmental management. It has been proven that the introduction of scientifically sound and effective methods of using meteorological and climatic information in economic calculations significantly reduces the loss caused by weather conditions and improves the  implementation of an optimal strategy for agricultural production on reclaimed lands. Such calculations are based on economic and statistical modelling of different variants that accounting for standard hydrometeorological information in the implementation of design, management and economic decisions. This increases the  validity and reliability of calculations, as well as their compliance with the actual operating conditions of environmental  and economic facilities. Consequently, this attracts increased interest of both public and private investors. Not only under such conditions is a sustainable development of environmental management sectors possible but also  the adaptation to global climate change and additional benefits from the efficient economic activity in the new environmental conditions.
7
Optimization model the pipe diameter in the drinking water distribution network using multi-objective genetic algorithm
Sulianto, Setiono E., Yasa I W.

Key words: diameter, genetic algorithm, network, Newton–Raphson method, optimum, pipe
For citation: Sulianto, Setiono E., Yasa I W. 2021. Optimization model the pipe diameter in the drinking water distribution network using multi-objective genetic algorithm. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 55–64. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136146.

Abstract
Under conditions of gravity flow, the performance of a distribution pipe network for drinking water supply can be  measured by investment cost and the difference in real and target pressures at each node to ensure fairness of the service.  Therefore, the objective function for the optimization in the design of a complex gravity flow pipe network is a multipurpose equation system set up to minimize the above-mentioned two parameters. This article presents a new model as an  alternative solution to solving the optimization equation system by combining the Newton–Raphson and genetic algorithm  (GA) methods into a single unit so that the resulting model can work effectively. The Newton–Raphson method is used to  solve the hydraulic equation system in pipelines and the GA is used to find the optimal pipe diameter combination in a network. Among application models in a complex pipe network consisting of 12 elements and 10 nodes, this model is able to  show satisfactory performance. Considering variations in the value of the weighting factor in the objective function, optimal conditions can be achieved at the investment cost factor (ω1) = 0.75 and the relative energy equalization factor at the  service node (ω2) = 0.25. With relevant GA input parameters, optimal conditions are achieved at the best fitness value of  1.016 which is equivalent to the investment cost of USD 56.67 thous. with an average relative energy deviation of 1.925 m.
8
Extraction of urban construction development with using Landsat satellite images and geoinformation systems
Arifjanov A.M., Akmalov S.B., Samiev L.N.

Key words: ArcGIS, geographic information system (GIS), Landsat satellite image, remote sensing (RS), urban
For citation: Arifjanov A.M., Akmalov S.B., Samiev L.N. 2021. Extraction of urban construction development with using Landsat satellite images and geoinformation systems. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 65–69. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136147.

Abstract
In recent times there have been many changes on Earth, which have appeared after anthropogenic impact. Finding solutions to problems in the environment requires studying the problems quickly, make proper conclusions and creating safe and useful measures. Humanity has always had an effect on the environment. There can be many changes on the Earth because of direct and indirect effects of humans on nature. Determining these changes at the right time and organizing measurements of them requires the creation of quick analysing methods. This development has improved specialists’ interest for remote sensing (RS) imagery. Moreover, in accordance with analysis of literature sources, agriculture, irrigation and ecology have the most demand for RS imagery. This article is about using geographic information system (GIS) and RS technologies in cadastre and urban construction branches. This article covers a newly created automated method for the calculation of artificial surface area based on satellite images. Accuracy of the analysis is verified according to the field experiments. Accuracy of analysis is 95%. According to the analysis from 1972 to 2019 artificial area enlargement is 13.44%. This method is very simple and easy to use. Using this data, the analysis method can decrease economical costs for field measures. Using this method and these tools in branches also allows for greater efficiency in time and resources

9
Tax audit in innovative development of the energy sector of the economy: Gobal trends
Sembiyeva L., Serikova M., Satymbekova K., Tulegenova Z., Nurmaganbetova B., Zhagyparova A.

Key words: fuel energy, innovative development, institutional features, integration process, state tax audit, tax administration
For citation: Sembiyeva L., Serikova M., Satymbekova K., Tulegenova Z., Nurmaganbetova B., Zhagyparova A. 2021. Tax audit in innovative development of the energy sector of the economy: Global trends. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 70–80. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136148.

Abstract
As part of the study, world fuel and energy were analysed. A model for the development of state tax audit in the  framework of innovative economic development is proposed. As a methodological base, general scientific research  methods were used, first of all, systems and integrated analysis methods to substantiate the essence of the state tax audit, to  develop approaches to the analysis of its results, and also to determine development trends. The importance of modernizing  the system based on the identified relationship between the level of innovative development and the volume of tax revenues  is substantiated. The developed model is based on the assumption that the tax gap will be minimized by encouraging taxpayers to voluntarily fulfil their tax obligations. The necessity of creating a supranational body of state audit within the  framework of integration processes is substantiated. The prospects for the development of Supreme Audit Institutions  (SAIs) in the context of globalization have been outlined, including the creation of territorial standards for a state audit of  the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) countries.
10
Evaluation of ecological and economic efficiency of investment in water management and land reclamation projects
Kovalenko P., Rokochinskiy A., Volk P., Turcheniuk V., Frolenkova N., Tykhenko R.

Key words: ecological and economic efficiency, evaluation, investments, land reclamation, risks, scientific and methodological principles, water management, weather and climatic conditions
For citation: Kovalenko P., Rokochinskiy A., Volk P., Turcheniuk V., Frolenkova N., Tykhenko R. 2021. Evaluation of ecological and economic efficiency of investment in water management and land reclamation projects. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 81–87. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136149.

Abstract
The article is devoted to the actual scientific and practical problem of improving methodological and methodical approaches to the evaluation of design solutions in the water management and land reclamation industry based on the ecological and economic principles in conditions of uncertainty. The current stage of the development of the water management sector in Ukraine is characterized by a combination of  past negligence and the present energy, food and water crises, as well as global climate change. To solve these problems, it  is necessary to reform organizational-economic relations in the industry, including new sources and forms of financing for  water management and land reclamation projects, introduction of new environmentally advanced technologies, and the improvement of the existing ecological and economic evaluation of investments. Based on scientific and methodological recommendations used for evaluating the effectiveness of investment in various spheres of economic activity, the authors developed and implemented an improved methodology for the evaluation of  water management and land reclamation projects. It is based on methodological approaches that cover such elements as the  variety of options, changes in the value of money over time, specific project implementation environment, including the  impact of weather, climate and environmental factors on project performance, multilevel and gradual evaluation of a project against specific criteria and according to stages of the project cycle. The method was tested during the reconstruction of a rice irrigation system in the steppe zone of about 3000 ha in  Ukraine. Economic results, namely the deterministic payback period and investment return index confirm that the proposed  mechanism, unlike the traditional one, increases the economic and environmental feasibility of water management and land  reclamation projects. Therefore, it stimulates investment in the land reclamation sector.
11
Exergetic analysis of the chitosan-based treatment process for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater and sediments
Cantillo-Figueroa M., Moreno-Sader K.A., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D.

Key words: efficiency, exergy, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sensitivity analysis
For citation: Cantillo-Figueroa M., Moreno-Sader K.A., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D. 2021. Exergetic analysis of the chitosan-based treatment process for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater and sediments. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 88–93. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136150.

Abstract
The Bay of Cartagena (Colombia) is a site of commercial interest owing to its privileged location for maritime operations; however, the discharge of wastewaters from industrial activities and domestic sewage are affecting the water quality, and consequently, the biodiversity of coastal ecosystems. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in sediments and water of main ports, causing severe damage to the ecosystem. Thus, alternatives for the treatment of the Bay of Cartagena’s water and sediments are needed. In this paper, we performed the exergetic analysis of removing PAHs from water and sediments in the Bay of Cartagena using an adsorption-based treatment process with chitosan microbeads and magnetic nanoparticles (CM-TiO2/Fe3O4). The outcomes of exergy of utilities, irreversibilities and exergy losses were calculated using process data and exergy of substances. The Aspen plus V10 software provided the physical exergies, while chemical exergies were gathered from the literature. Overall exergy efficiency of 0.3% was determined for the seawater and sediment treatment facility. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the impact and viability of different design alternatives.
12
Suitability of surface water for irrigation in the Maffragh basin, North-East of Algeria
Boubguira S., Zouini D., Lamine S., Dali N.

Key words: irrigation, Maffragh basin, northeastern Algeria, rain-fed agriculture, surface water
For citation: Boubguira S., Zouini D., Lamine S., Dali N. 2021. Suitability of surface water for irrigation in the Maffragh basin, North-East of Algeria. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 94–98. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136151.

Abstract
Water quality is an environmental priority for irrigation in rainfed agriculture. Recently, water quality has been affected by the uncontrolled disposal of wastewater, the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and, most significantly, by the excessive exploitation of water resources during the low season. The basin of the Maffragh in the Algerian north-east real is fed by two main rivers: Wadi El Kebir East and Bounnamoussa. From its source, the stream is continually contaminated with domestic and agricultural discharges through the tributaries causing a significant deterioration in water quality. In order to know the current state of water quality in the Maffragh basin and to determine its suitability for irrigation without any prior treatment, research has been conducted in the two streams at representative sampling points in catchment areas used for irrigating crops. To assess the quality of water and detectable compounds monitoring, laboratory methods are used. The various volumetric and colorimetric assays were carried out according to Jean Rodier. Organic parameters such as nitrites, ammonium and phosphates, were measured using a UV/VIS 6705 JENWAY spectrophotometer, at wavelengths of 543 nm, 630 nm and 880 nm respectively for nitrites, ammonium and phosphates. The BOD5 and COD parameter was measured using a DIN EN 1899-1-H51 spectrophotometer and DIN ISO15705: 2002 spectrophotometer. The performed analyses on conductivity shows oscillating values ranging between 425 and 495 µS∙cm–1 for January 2018, while for the low water level of July 2018 the conductivity varies between 433 and 796 µS∙cm–1 ; this parameter is determinant for water quality assessment and its use for irrigation. Beside the conductivity test, the Riverside–Wilcox diagram was applied, to combine conductivity and sodium absorption rate (SAR). The obtained results of the two seasons show satisfactory results in the applicability of the water to irrigate in the basin.
13
Adsorption method of purification of stocks from chromium(III) ions by bentonite clays
Soloviy Ch., Malovanyy M., Palamarchuk O., Trach I., Petruk H., Sakalova H., Vasylinych T., Vronska N.

Key words: adsorption, bentonite, chromium ions, environmental safety, natural clay sorbents, wastewater purification
For citation: Soloviy Ch., Malovanyy M., Palamarchuk O., Trach I., Petruk H., Sakalova H., Vasylinych T., Vronska N. 2021. Adsorption method of purification of stocks from chromium(III) ions by bentonite clays. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 99–104. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136152.

Abstract
The process of sorption of chromium(III) ions with a stationary sorbent layer of bentonite clays was investigated. The main advantages of using bentonites in water purification technologies are described: powerful geological reserves, cheap process of rock extraction, easy preparation for transportation and use, possibility of using waste sorbents in other technologies that is why there is no need in costly regeneration. The influence of various factors (process duration, an adsorbent layer) on the degree of wastewater purification from chromium ions, the effect of pumping speed on the dynamic capacity of the sorbent was studied and the effective volume was determined. The adsorption efficacy increases with the increase of the adsorbent layer, what can be explained by the development of the active sorption surface. As the initial concentration of chromium ions increases, the time of appearance of the first traces of the contaminant at the exit of the column increases, as well as the total time to channeling. The results of the studies indicate a higher adsorption capacity of modified bentonite with respect to Cr3+ ions compared to its natural formula. The cleaning efficacy of the solution with a concentration of chromium ions of 0.5 g∙dm–3 is increased by 5% when using 15 g of modified bentonite and 6,5% in the case one uses 20 g compared to the natural form.
14
Health implications of stream water contamination by industrial effluents in the Onitsha urban area of Southeastern Nigeria
Okafor U.P., Obeta M.C., Ayadiuno R.U., Onyekwelu A.C., Asuoha G.C., Eze E.J., Orji-Okafor C.E., Igboeli E.E.

Key words: contamination, health implication, industrial effluents, Onitsha urban, stream water
For citation: Okafor U.P., Obeta M.C., Ayadiuno R.U., Onyekwelu A.C., Asuoha G.C., Eze E.J., Orji-Okafor C.E., Igboeli E.E. 2021. Health implications of stream water contamination by industrial effluents in the Onitsha urban area of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 105–114. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136153.

Abstract
Nigeria has abundant surface and ground water resources many of which are polluted and can be detrimental to human health when consumed. This study investigated the effects of effluents discharged by industries into streams on the health of people who depend on stream water for domestic purposes in the Onitsha urban area of eastern Nigeria. Water samples collected from eleven discharge locations underwent physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Data on the effects of industrial effluents on health were obtained from records in the public hospitals located in Onitsha as well as through questionnaire surveys and field observations. The results of the analyses revealed that the effluents grossly degrade surface water bodies; several parameters (temperature, iron, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, lead, magnesium, total heterotrophic counts, total coliform group, pH) had values which were higher than the WHO (2011) safety limits for drinking water. The contamination of investigated streams by effluents had negative impact on the health of stream users. The discussion included health effects of polluted water and the prevalence of water borne or related diseases in the area. Implications of these findings were also discussed. Management measures capable of minimizing contamination of surface water in the study area were suggested.
15
Assessment of methods of the autumn-winter moisture accumulation in poor draining soil in the arid region of Northern Kazakhstan
Astafyev V.L., Ivanchenko P.G.

Key words: arid region, coulisses, chiselling, moisture accumulation, over crusting soil
For citation: Astafyev V.L., Ivanchenko P.G. 2021. Assessment of methods of the autumn-winter moisture accumulation in poor draining soil in the arid region of Northern Kazakhstan. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 115-121. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136154.

Abstract
In the initial stage of the growing season, the accumulation of autumn and winter precipitation moisture in poorly draining soil in arid conditions in the Northern region of Kazakhstan was a serious production problem. Research methods included measurements of autumn and winter moisture reserves in poorly draining soil and snow on the backgrounds of ordinary stubble, stubble coulisses and tall stubble left after stripper header (continuous combing) with and without autumn chiselling. The study revealed that the use of the continuous combing and stubble coulisses on poor draining soil: (a) supports reserves of moisture in autumn soil; (b) the lack of chiselling leads to increased water runoff and the formation of limans in the fields. The use of stubble coulisses during snowy winters allowed moisture reserves in the snow to be increased in comparison with the stubble background. The use of chiselling on the background of stubble coulisses allowed: (a) to reduce runoff moisture loss in poorly draining soil by 35–50% after snowy winters, by 25–35% after little snowy winters, and prevent the formation of limans in the fields; (b) in comparison with the stubble background to increase the total reserves of autumn-winter moisture in poorly draining soil by 61–105 mm in favourable years, and by 57 mm in years with the low autumn-winter precipitation. The use of chiselling on a stubble background did not significantly affect the total reserves of autumn-winter moisture in poorly draining soil.
16
The analysis of chemical parameters of groundwater before and after sand filtration in the Velekinca water treatment plant, Kosovo
Beluli V.M.

Key words: groundwater treatment plant, ion-sand particle chain, physical-chemical parameters, sand filtration, WHO standard
For citation: Beluli V.M. 2021. The analysis of chemical parameters of groundwater before and after sand filtration in the Velekinca water treatment plant, Kosovo. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I-III) p. 122-129. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136155.

Abstract
Our scientific research is based on the monitoring of ions before and after filtration of groundwaters in the water plant of Velekinca in the municipality of Gjilan, Kosovo. Sandy filters are the most commonly used industrial filters in surface and groundwater industries. The reason is their low construction cost and high processing capacity. In our scientific research, sand filters used in the plant do not have perfect filtration, so we can monitor results before filtration (BF) and after filtration (AF) by determining the concentration of some ions and molecules. The following  average concentrations have described: Ca2+ (BF: 83.42, AF: 83.19) mg·dm–3, Mg2+ (BF: 35.59, AF: 34.35) mg·dm–3, Cl– (BF: 28.018, AF: 28.73) mg·dm–3, SO42– (BF: 42.76, AF: 44.46) mg·dm–3, HCO3– (BF: 410.9, AF: 404.81) mg·dm–3, A-HCl (BF: 6.73, AF: 6.63) ml-HCl, GH (BF: 19.94, AF: 19.62) °dH, CS (BF: 18.87, AF: 18.5) °dH and NO2– (BF: 0.0033, AF: 0.0022) mg·dm–3. Being scientific researchers in the field of water treatment technology, we have concluded that ions create an affinity for sand particles. They attach to each other by creating an ion-sand particle physical chain. According to our scientific research, sand filters are difficult to guarantee a high quality of water processing.
17
Hydrogeological monitoring of karst activity based on regime observations in the territory of karst lakes
Kuzichkin O.R., Romanov R.V., Dorofeev N.V., Vasilyev G.S., Grecheneva A.V.

Key words: data processing algorithm, geodynamics, geoelectric facility, hydrogeological monitoring, karst lake, phase-measuring method
For citation: Kuzichkin O.R., Romanov R.V., Dorofeev N.V., Vasilyev G.S., Grecheneva A.V. 2021. Hydrogeological monitoring of karst activity based on regime observations in the territory of karst lakes. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 130–140. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136156.

Abstract
This article shows that the most sensitive indicator of local and regional karst activity in territories of apparent karst processes is the behaviour of karst lakes. The authors propose a hydrogeological monitoring methodology for the karst process based on the phase-measuring geoelectric control method in the coastal zone of karst lakes. The geoelectric current control of hydrogeological changes in the medium at local levels uses a multi-frequency vertical electric sounding combined with a phase-measuring method of registering the geoelectric signal. These proven methods permit to distinguish variations of spatial parameters and the electric conductivity of several layers at a time. Moreover, they significantly increase the noise resistance and sensitivity of the measuring system. An adaptive algorithm function of the measuring complex for
geoelectric monitoring of karst lakes’ coastal zones was developed to control the operation of facilities and data collection systems. Based on an example of a lake where karst processes are active, the key zones of hydrogeological control were identified depending on karst manifestations. The research confirmed the possibility of local and regional monitoring of the development and forecasting of destructive karst-suffosion processes based on hydrogeological regime observations of karst lakes.
18
Influence of pesticides on the biological activity of light chestnut soils in South-East Kazakhstan
Tukenova Z., Mustafayev M., Alimzhanova M., Akylbekova T., Ashimuly K.

Key words: biological activity, chromatographic analysis, ecology, light chestnut soil, pesticides, soil mesofauna
For citation: Tukenova Z., Mustafayev M., Alimzhanova M., Akylbekova T., Ashimuly K. 2021. Influence of pesticides on the biological activity of light chestnut soils in South-East Kazakhstan. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 141–147. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136157.

Abstract
The paper discusses the impact of pesticides on the biological activity of soils, as well as an environmental assessment of the state of light chestnut soils by the Kazakh Research Institute of Agriculture and Crop Production with the aim to establish diagnostic indicators that reduce biological activity. The study covers physical, chemical and biological properties of soils under crops of winter wheat in the light chestnut soil in the South-East of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The content of pesticides in soil samples was determined using the gas chromatography mass-spectrometric method. The paper shows results of the chromatographic analysis of soil samples regarding the content of pesticides. The study of changes of light chestnut soil biological activity was conducted to determine their relative resistance to pesticide contamination. Data obtained revealed the degree of light chestnut soil resistance to pesticide contamination. The study also identified species of soil invertebrates, as well as soil enzymes that should be used as bioindicators for the monitoring of the contamination with pesticides. Results obtained expand knowledge about changes in the biological activity of light chestnut soils due to pesticide contamination in the ecosystems of South-East Kazakhstan. In contrast to abundance indicators, the results suggest that the species composition of soil organisms can be used as a criterion for a qualitative assessment of the soil exposure to pesticides.
19
Spatial and temporal evaluation of global rainfall products in a data-scarce region: The Dez Basin, Iran
Khoshchehreh M., Ghomeshi M., Shahbazi A., Bolboli H., Saberi H., Gorjizade A.

Key words: CMORPH, ERA5, ERA-Interim, PERSIANN-CCS, precipitation datasets, reanalysis data, satellite-based precipitation
For citation: Khoshchehreh M., Ghomeshi M., Shahbazi A., Bolboli H., Saberi H., Gorjizade A. 2021. Spatial and temporal evaluation of global rainfall products in a data-scarce region: The Dez Basin, Iran. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 148–161. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136158.

Abstract
The limitation in approachability to rainfall data sources with an appropriate spatial-temporal distribution is a significant challenge in different parts of the world. The development of general circulation models and mathematical algorithms has led to the generation of various rainfall products as new sources with the potential to overcome the shortage in data-scarce basins. In this study, the performance of the PERSIANN-CCS and CMORPH satellite-based rainfall product, as well as the ERA5 and ERA-Interim reanalysis, was evaluated based on detection skill and quantitative metrics in a daily, monthly and seasonal time scales in the Dez basin located in the southwest of Iran. The basin has a wide topographic variation and scattered rain gauge stations. Overall results denote that the ERA5 dataset has the best performance in all statistic verification than other rainfall products. Based on the daily evaluation of all rainfall products, the false alarm rate (FAR) is higher than 0.5, so none of the datasets could capture the temporal variability of rainfall occurrence. This study has covered the western parts of the Zagros steep slopes in which the topographic conditions have a significant effect on the activity of rainfall systems. On a monthly scale, the mean value of the correlation coefficient (CC) for ERA5, ERA-Interim, PERSIANN-CCS, and CMORPH was equal to 0.86, 0.85, 0.51, 0.39, respectively. The results of seasonal evaluation suggested that all datasets have better rainfall estimation in autumn and winter, and the capability of all datasets dramatically decreased in the spring. The current paper argues that the ERA5 reanalysis typically outperforms ERA-Interim and can be considered as a reliable rainfall source in the future hydrological investigation in the southwest of Iran.
20
Hydrodynamic features of the floating water outlet from a pumping station
Gerasimov I., Herasymov H., Pinchuk O.

Key words: hydromechanical transient processes, pumping station, resistance coefficient, water outlet
For citation: Gerasimov I., Herasymov H., Pinchuk O. 2021. Hydrodynamic features of the floating water outlet from a pumping station. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 162–171. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136159.

Abstract
The article considers issues of ensuring sustainable agricultural production by increasing reliability of an irrigation system and water security. The article describes results of hydraulic tests performed at the water outlet with a vertical movement valve member. Resistance coefficients and hydrodynamic effects at the water outlet were determined experimentally. The study developed a method for calculating hydromechanical transient processes in the water outlet at the stop and start of the pump. The paper substantiates the new construction of a water outlet facility with a vertical displacement of the breakdown valve. Such a design better corresponds to peculiarities of the operation of pumping stations and, if there are water pipes of considerable diameter, it has a positive effect on transition hydrodynamic processes by reducing the number of failures and downtime by up to 10%.
21
Techno-socio-economic analysis of fog-to-water solution for climate change hazard area: Sumba Island, Indonesia
Ismail Z., Go Y. I., Karuniasa M.

Key words: climate change, fog collector, hazard, Southeast Asia, water scarcity
For citation: Ismail Z., Go Y. I., Karuniasa M. 2021. Techno-socio-economic analysis of fog-to-water solution for climate change hazard area: Sumba Island, Indonesia. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 172–181. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136160.

Abstract
The global demand for water has been growing rapidly in the last decade with a global population growth rate of 1.1% p.a., which is equivalent to 81 million people per year. Southeast Asian countries are facing severe water scarcity challenge due to their location in the tropics. In 2018, the Sumba Island experienced the highest temperature of 36°C and lesser rainfall of 911.1 mm3 per year and it was classified as a long dry island prone to drought due to dry winds from Australian desserts. This paper focuses on the perceived effect of water scarcity on livelihoods in the Mandahu Village, Indonesia, due to climate change. Sampling and survey covered rural households and the findings showed that the average household of 4 to 8 people consumed around 250 dm3 of water per day. The community relied on two main sources of clean water from two main springs. However, the prolonged dry season from May until December every year results in major challenges to access water and eventually affect the agricultural productivity. Hence, the feasibility of the fog collection technology has been investigated from technological, economic and social points of view as a reliable and cost-effective source of water. The outcome of this work will produce a feasibility statement for fog-to-water as an alternative solution counteracting water scarcity in the Sumba Island, a solution which can be replicated in other climate change stricken hot spots in Southeast Asia.
22
Spatial differentiation of regulatory monetary valuation of agricultural land in conditions of widespread irrigation of steppe soils
Pichura V., Potravka L., Dudiak N., Stroganov A., Dyudyaeva O.

Key words: ecological and agro-ameliorative indices, GIS technologies, irrigation, methodology, modelling, regulatory and monetary valuation, relief and climatic conditions, soil quality class
For citation: Pichura V., Potravka L., Dudiak N., Stroganov A., Dyudyaeva O. 2021. Spatial differentiation of regulatory monetary valuation of agricultural land in conditions of widespread irrigation of steppe soils. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 182–196. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136161.

Abstract
The article presents results of quality class determination and regulatory and monetary valuation of agricultural land in the steppe soils irrigation zone using the Karmanov’s methodology of soil and climatic quality class determination and author's methodology of ecological, agro-ameliorative and climatic soils quality class determination. Based on the results of spatial modeling, a series of maps was created and characteristics of ecological, agro-ameliorative and relief and climatic components of soils quality class were presented based on the example of the Kherson Region, Ukraine. According to the results soil and climatic quality class determination, it is established that the value of the class varies from 25 to 46 points; the regulatory and monetary value of agricultural land varies from USD 490 per 1 ha for dark chestnut and chestnut alkaline soils up to USD1,360 per ha for ordinary chernozem. According to the results of ecological, agro-ameliorative and climatic soils quality class determination, it is established that the value of the class varies from 6 to 59 points; the regulatory and monetary value of agricultural land varies from USD145 per 1 ha for degraded and highly saline chestnut soils up to USD2,060 per ha for irrigated southern chernozem. The suggested methodology of soil quality class calculation can have multiple purposes. It is intended to be used for different physiographic conditions of land use to develop adaptive soils protection measures at different territorial levels of agricultural production management with the overall objective of ensuring sustainable land use.
23
The kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium study of nickel and lead uptake using corn residues as adsorbent
Tejada-Tovar C., Villabona-Ortíz Á., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D.

Key words: adsorption, corn wastes, heavy metals, kinetics, thermodynamics
For citation: Tejada-Tovar C., Villabona-Ortíz Á., Gonzalez-Delgado A.D. 2021. The kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium study of nickel and lead uptake using corn residues as adsorbent. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 197–204. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136162.

Abstract
Agricultural residues rich in lignocellulosic biomass are low-cost and sustainable adsorbents widely used in water treatment. In the present research, thermodynamics, kinetics, and equilibrium of nickel(II) and lead(II) ion biosorption were studied using a corncob (Zea mays). The experiments were performed in a batch system evaluating the effect of temperature and dose of adsorbent. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to study the equilibrium. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined using kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich). Biosorbent characteristics were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxyl, carboxyl, and phenolic groups are the major contributors to the removal process. Besides, Pb(II) ions form micro-complexes on the surface of the biomaterial while Ni(II) ions form bonds with active centers. It was found that the highest Ni(II) removal yields were achieved at 0.02 g of adsorbent and 70°C, while the highest Pb(II) removal yields were achieved at 0.003 g and 55°C. A maximum Ni(II) adsorption capacity of 3.52 mg∙g–1 (86%) and 13.32 mg∙g–1 (94.3%) for Pb(II) was obtained in 250 and 330 min, respectively. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models best fit experimental data, and Langmuir and Freundlich models well describe the isotherm of the process. Thermodynamic parameters (∆H0, ∆G0, ∆S0) suggest that the adsorption process of both cations is exothermic, irreversible, and not spontaneous.
24
Using RUSLE and GIS for the soil loss assessment in arid regions: The case of the Ain Sefra catchment in the Ksour Mountains, Algeria
Melalih A., Mazour M.

Key words: Ain Sefra watershed, Algeria, arid region, GIS, RUSLE, soil erosion
For citation: Melalih A., Mazour M. 2021. Using RUSLE and GIS for the soil loss assessment in arid regions: The case of the Ain Sefra catchment in the Ksour Mountains, Algeria. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 205–214. DOI: 10.24425/jwld.2021.136163.

Abstract
The loss of soil quality due to erosion is a global problem, particularly affecting natural resources and agricultural production in Algeria. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is applied to estimate the risk of water erosion in the Ain Sefra arid watershed (Algeria). The coupling of this equation with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows to assess and map the soil loss rates. The land erosion is influenced by many control variables, such as the topographic factor of the terrain and the length of slope (LS factor), rainfall erosivity (R factor), sensitivity of soil to erosion (K factor), presence of vegetation (C factor) and the anti-erosion cultivation techniques (P factor). To calculate the average annual soil loss, these five factors were considered and multiplied in the RUSLE Equation. The result shows that the average rate of soil loss is estimated at about 5.2 t·ha–1·y–1 over the whole watershed. This study is the first of its kind in the region and aims to assess the soil loss caused by water erosion processes in this arid zone. Consequently, it is essential to take real intervention measures in these upstream areas in order to combat this scourge, based on priorities ensuring the sustainable management of natural resources in the study area.
25
Water resource modelling for the Lake Tana sub-basin using the Mike Basin model for current and future water resource development scenarios
Mulat A.G.

Key words: development scenarios, Lake Tana sub-basin, Mike Basin model, modelling, reservoir operation, water resource
For citation: Mulat A.G. 2021. Water resource modelling for the Lake Tana sub-basin using the Mike Basin model for current and future water resource development scenarios. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 48 (I–III) p. 215–224. DOI 10.24425/jwld.2021.136164.

Abstract
Rainfall in the Lake Tana basin is highly seasonal and the base flow contribution is also low resulting in the need for reservoirs to meet the agricultural demand during the dry season. Water demand competition is increasing because of intense agricultural production. The objective of this study is to develop water balance models. The Mike Basin model has been selected for water allocation modelling and identifying potential changes needed to the existing water allocation scheme to reduce the stress due to increased water demand. The study considers baseline and future development scenarios. The construction of new dams results in two competing effects with respect to evaporation loss. The first effect is increased evaporation from new reservoirs, while the other is reduced evaporation from the Lake Tana as a result of a decreased surface area of the lake and reduced inflow of water to the lake. Once a dam is built, there will be an additional free water surface area and more evaporation loss. In dry months from January to May, the irrigation water demand deficit is up to 16 Mm3. It is caused by reservoirs built in the basin, which reduce the inflow to the Lake Tana. The inflow varies between wet and dry months, and there is more water flow in wet months (July, August and September) and reduced flow in dry months because of the regulatory effects produced by the reservoirs.
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e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl;
e-mail: wydawnictwo@itp.edu.pl
Dział Wydawnictw ITP/Editorial Office
Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy
Falenty, al. Hrabska 3, 05-090 Raszyn, Polska
tel. +48 22 243 54 54
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